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Eco friendly Ganpati information

eco friendly ganpati information

eco friendly ganpati information

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by admin - August 6, 2017 at 3:26 pm

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My favourite festival Ganesh Chaturthi essay

my favourite festival ganesh chaturthi essay

my favourite festival ganesh chaturthi essay

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10 lines on Ganesh Chaturthi

10 lines on ganesh chaturthi

10 lines on ganesh chaturthi

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Snake Catcher Vava Suresh

वावा सुरेश खतरनाक सांपों खासकर जानलेवा कोबरा को इंसानी बसाहट वाले इलाकों से रेस्क्यू किए जाने को लेकर जाने जाते हैं। जहरीले-से-जहरीले कोबरा जैसे सांपों से भी सुरेश आंख-से-आंख मिलाते नजर आते हैं। वे अब तक करीब 113 किंग कोबरा को रेस्क्यू कर चुके हैं। जो दुनिया के सबसे खतरनाक किस्म के सांपों में शामिल हैं। 42 साल के सुरेश इस काम को अपना मिशन मानते हैं। जबकि, वे जानते हैं कि इसमें उनकी जान को खतरा है।कई जहरीले सांपों ने उन्हें काटा भी, लेकिन नहीं हुआ कोई असर…

snake catcher vava suresh

snake catcher vava suresh

– किंग कोबरा को दुनिया के सबसे खतरनाक सांपों में शुमार किया जाता है। इसे सामने देखकर किसी की भी हालत खराब हो सकती है, लेकिन केरल के रहने वाले ‘स्नेक मैन’ वावा सुरेश ने कई जहरीले सांपों को पकड़ा है।
– इस दौरान कई जहरीले सांपों ने उन्हें काटा भी है, लेकिन उनपर इन सांपों के जहर का कोई खास असर नहीं हुआ। अब तक पकड़े सांपों में ऐसे किंग कोबरा भी शामिल हैं। जिनके जहर की एक बूंद कई लोगों की जान ले सकती है।
12 की उम्र में पकड़ा था पहला सांप
– सुरेश जब 12 साल के थे, तब उन्होंने एक छोटा कोबरा सांप पकड़ा था। वह उन्हीं के घर में घुसा था। उन्होंने सांपों के नेचर को काफी बारीकी से समझा और इस तरह उन्होंने समझा कि कैसे बिना किसी नुकसान के सांपों को काबू में किया जाता है।
– सबसे ताज्जुब की बात यह है कि इतने खतरनाक सांपों को पकड़ने के लिए सुरेश किसी खास तरह के औजार का इस्तेमाल नहीं करते बल्कि, वे अपने हाथों से ही उनपर काबू पा लेते हैं।
– वे लोगों को सांपों की नेचर के बैलेंस को मेंटेन करने की अहमियत और सांपों की इको सिस्टम में कॉन्ट्रीब्यूशन को लेकर अवेयर करना चाहते हैं।
ठुकरा दिया सरकारी जॉब
– वाइल्ड लाइफ कंजर्वेटर सुरेश को सांपों के पकड़ने की महारत की वजह से पूरी दुनिया में पहचान मिली। ऐसे में केरल सरकार ने उन्हें सरकारी जॉब का ऑफर दिया था, लेकिन सुरेश ने इसे ठुकरा दिया। सुरेश कहते हैं कि अगर वे नौकरी करने लग जाएंगे तो समाज के लोगों की मदद करने में मुश्किलें आ सकती हैं।
– सुरेश का जॉब काफी रिस्की है। एक बार कोबरा के काटने के चलते उन्हें अपनी उंगली तक सर्जरी से कटवानी पड़ी थी। 2012 में एक और सांप के काटने से उनकी हथेली की स्किन तक खराब हो चुकी है। अब उनके शरीर ने सांप के जहर का एंटीडोज खुद ही तैयार कर लिया है।

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by admin - August 3, 2017 at 10:10 am

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God Vishwakarma – Vishwakarma God History

god vishwakarma

god vishwakarma

vishwakarma god history

vishwakarma god history

 

Shree Vishwakarma Chalisa in Hindi

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by admin - April 8, 2017 at 3:55 pm

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प्रभु श्रीराम के वंशज कौन हैं, जानिए चौंकाने वाला रहस्य

जल प्रलय के बाद वैवस्वत और कुछ ऋषियों के कुल का ही धरती पर विस्तार हुआ। वैवस्वत मनु के दस पुत्र थे- इल, इक्ष्वाकु, कुशनाम, अरिष्ट, धृष्ट, नरिष्यन्त, करुष, महाबली, शर्याति और पृषध। राम का जन्म इक्ष्वाकु के कुल में हुआ था। जैन धर्म के तीर्थंकर निमि भी इसी कुल के थे।
मनु के दूसरे पुत्र इक्ष्वाकु से विकुक्षि, निमि और दण्डक पुत्र उत्पन्न हुए। इस तरह से यह वंश परम्परा चलते-चलते हरिश्चन्द्र रोहित, वृष, बाहु और सगर तक पहुँची। इक्ष्वाकु प्राचीन कौशल देश के राजा थे और इनकी राजधानी अयोध्या थी।
रामायण के बालकांड में गुरु वशिष्ठजी द्वारा राम के कुल का वर्णन किया गया है जो इस प्रकार है:- ब्रह्माजी से मरीचि का जन्म हुआ। मरीचि के पुत्र कश्यप हुए। कश्यप के विवस्वान और विवस्वान के वैवस्वतमनु हुए। वैवस्वत मनु के समय जल प्रलय हुआ था। वैवस्वतमनु के दस पुत्रों में से एक का नाम इक्ष्वाकु था। इक्ष्वाकु ने अयोध्या को अपनी राजधानी बनाया और इस प्रकार इक्ष्वाकु कुल की स्थापना की।
इक्ष्वाकु के पुत्र कुक्षि हुए। कुक्षि के पुत्र का नाम विकुक्षि था। विकुक्षि के पुत्र बाण और बाण के पुत्र अनरण्य हुए। अनरण्य से पृथु और पृथु और पृथु से त्रिशंकु का जन्म हुआ। त्रिशंकु के पुत्र धुंधुमार हुए। धुन्धुमार के पुत्र का नाम युवनाश्व था। युवनाश्व के पुत्र मान्धाता हुए और मान्धाता से सुसन्धि का जन्म हुआ। सुसन्धि के दो पुत्र हुए- ध्रुवसन्धि एवं प्रसेनजित। ध्रुवसन्धि के पुत्र भरत हुए।
भरत के पुत्र असित हुए और असित के पुत्र सगर हुए। सगर अयोध्या के बहुत प्रतापी राजा थे। सगर के पुत्र का नाम असमंज था। असमंज के पुत्र अंशुमान तथा अंशुमान के पुत्र दिलीप हुए। दिलीप के पुत्र भगीरथ हुए। भगीरथ ने ही गंगा को पृथ्वी पर उतार था। भगीरथ के पुत्र ककुत्स्थ और ककुत्स्थ के पुत्र रघु हुए। रघु के अत्यंत तेजस्वी और पराक्रमी नरेश होने के कारण उनके बाद इस वंश का नाम रघुवंश हो गया। तब राम के कुल को रघुकुल भी कहा जाता है।
रघु के पुत्र प्रवृद्ध हुए। प्रवृद्ध के पुत्र शंखण और शंखण के पुत्र सुदर्शन हुए। सुदर्शन के पुत्र का नाम अग्निवर्ण था। अग्निवर्ण के पुत्र शीघ्रग और शीघ्रग के पुत्र मरु हुए। मरु के पुत्र प्रशुश्रुक और प्रशुश्रुक के पुत्र अम्बरीष हुए। अम्बरीष के पुत्र का नाम नहुष था। नहुष के पुत्र ययाति और ययाति के पुत्र नाभाग हुए। नाभाग के पुत्र का नाम अज था। अज के पुत्र दशरथ हुए और दशरथ के ये चार पुत्र राम, भरत, लक्ष्मण तथा शत्रुघ्न हैं। वा‍ल्मीकि रामायण- ॥1-59 से 72।।
लव और कुश : भरत के दो पुत्र थे- तार्क्ष और पुष्कर। लक्ष्मण के पुत्र- चित्रांगद और चन्द्रकेतु और शत्रुघ्न के पुत्र सुबाहु और शूरसेन थे। मथुरा का नाम पहले शूरसेन था। लव और कुश राम तथा सीता के जुड़वां बेटे थे। जब राम ने वानप्रस्थ लेने का निश्चय कर भरत का राज्याभिषेक करना चाहा तो भरत नहीं माने। अत: दक्षिण कोसल प्रदेश (छत्तीसगढ़) में कुश और उत्तर कोसल में लव का अभिषेक किया गया।

राम के काल में भी कोशल राज्य उत्तर कोशल और दक्षिण कोशल में विभाजित था। कालिदास के रघुवंश अनुसार राम ने अपने पुत्र लव को शरावती का और कुश को कुशावती का राज्य दिया था। शरावती को श्रावस्ती मानें तो निश्चय ही लव का राज्य उत्तर भारत में था और कुश का राज्य दक्षिण कोसल में। कुश की राजधानी कुशावती आज के बिलासपुर जिले में थी। कोसला को राम की माता कौशल्या की जन्मभूमि माना जाता है। रघुवंश के अनुसार कुश को अयोध्या जाने के लिए विंध्याचल को पार करना पड़ता था इससे भी सिद्ध होता है कि उनका राज्य दक्षिण कोसल में ही था।

राजा लव से राघव राजपूतों का जन्म हुआ जिनमें बर्गुजर, जयास और सिकरवारों का वंश चला। इसकी दूसरी शाखा थी सिसोदिया राजपूत वंश की जिनमें बैछला (बैसला) और गैहलोत (गुहिल) वंश के राजा हुए। कुश से कुशवाह (कछवाह) राजपूतों का वंश चला।
ऐतिहासिक तथ्यों के अनुसार लव ने लवपुरी नगर की स्थापना की थी, जो वर्तमान में पाकिस्तान स्थित शहर लाहौर है। यहां के एक किले में लव का एक मंदिर भी बना हुआ है। लवपुरी को बाद में लौहपुरी कहा जाने लगा। दक्षिण-पूर्व एशियाई देश लाओस, थाई नगर लोबपुरी, दोनों ही उनके नाम पर रखे गए स्थान हैं।
राम के दोनों पुत्रों में कुश का वंश आगे बढ़ा तो कुश से अतिथि और अतिथि से, निषधन से, नभ से, पुण्डरीक से, क्षेमन्धवा से, देवानीक से, अहीनक से, रुरु से, पारियात्र से, दल से, छल से, उक्थ से, वज्रनाभ से, गण से, व्युषिताश्व से, विश्वसह से, हिरण्यनाभ से, पुष्य से, ध्रुवसंधि से, सुदर्शन से, अग्रिवर्ण से, पद्मवर्ण से, शीघ्र से, मरु से, प्रयुश्रुत से, उदावसु से, नंदिवर्धन से, सकेतु से, देवरात से, बृहदुक्थ से, महावीर्य से, सुधृति से, धृष्टकेतु से, हर्यव से, मरु से, प्रतीन्धक से, कुतिरथ से, देवमीढ़ से, विबुध से, महाधृति से, कीर्तिरात से, महारोमा से, स्वर्णरोमा से और ह्रस्वरोमा से सीरध्वज का जन्म हुआ।
कुश वंश के राजा सीरध्वज को सीता नाम की एक पुत्री हुई। सूर्यवंश इसके आगे भी बढ़ा जिसमें कृति नामक राजा का पुत्र जनक हुआ जिसने योग मार्ग का रास्ता अपनाया था। कुश वंश से ही कुशवाह, मौर्य, सैनी, शाक्य संप्रदाय की स्थापना मानी जाती है।
एक शोधानुसार लव और कुश की 50वीं पीढ़ी में शल्य हुए, ‍जो महाभारत युद्ध में कौरवों की ओर से लड़े थे। यह इसकी गणना की जाए तो लव और कुश महाभारतकाल के 2500 वर्ष पूर्व से 3000 वर्ष पूर्व हुए थे अर्थात आज से 6,500 से 7,000 वर्ष पूर्व।
इसके अलावा शल्य के बाद बहत्क्षय, ऊरुक्षय, बत्सद्रोह, प्रतिव्योम, दिवाकर, सहदेव, ध्रुवाश्च, भानुरथ, प्रतीताश्व, सुप्रतीप, मरुदेव, सुनक्षत्र, किन्नराश्रव, अन्तरिक्ष, सुषेण, सुमित्र, बृहद्रज, धर्म, कृतज्जय, व्रात, रणज्जय, संजय, शाक्य, शुद्धोधन, सिद्धार्थ, राहुल, प्रसेनजित, क्षुद्रक, कुलक, सुरथ, सुमित्र हुए। माना जाता है कि जो लोग खुद को शाक्यवंशी कहते हैं वे भी श्रीराम के वंशज हैं।

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by admin - April 14, 2016 at 10:07 am

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HARSHA VARDHANA, KING OF THANESAR & KANAUJ

HARSHA VARDHANA, KING OF THANESAR & KANAUJ
c. 590-c. 647

Harsha Vardhana was born circa 590, the son of King Prabhakara Vardhana of Thanesar (in the Punjab) and Queen Yasovati “in the month Jyaistha, on the twelfth day of the dark fortnight, the Pleiads being in the ascendant, just after the twilight time. “

For an ancient Indian king, his life is well documented. There are inscriptions, travel records of Hsuan Tsang, a Chinese pilgrim, and Harsha Charita by Bana, the court chronicler. (Most of the quotations in this sketch are from the Harsha Charita. )

His family background is also well documented. He was of the Maukhari dynasty of Kanauj. His father is thought to have been the son of a Gupta princess. He was a petty chief in a district called Sthanvisvara in the land of Srikantha. He fought against the Huns who were invading India around this time, and he conquered much of north India. In the inscriptions it is recorded that he was the “one whose fame spread beyond the four seas, and to whom submitted other kings in power or love. “He called himself Maharajadhiraja (Supreme King of Great Kings) and was the son of Aditya Vardhana and grandson of Rajya Vardhana I who were merely Maharajas.

Harsha had a brother, Rajya, and a sister, Rajyasri, both of whom were older than he was. The sister was married off to Prince Graha Varman, the son of Avanti Varman, king of Kanauj. Shortly after that, Rajya Vardhana, the elder, brother was off fighting the Huns because the king was too old and feeble to do so himself. During this time young Harsha, aged about 16, was hunting lions, tigers and boars in the foot hills. When he learned that his father the king was dying, he hurried to his side. The king’s last words to Harsha were:

“Succeed to this world, appropriate my treasury, make prize of the feudatory kings, support the burden of royalty, protect the people, guard well your dependents, practise well your arms, annihilate your foes. “

When Rajya arrived on the scene, bandages covering up arrow wounds suffered from Hun arrows, he was so saddened by his father’s death that he resolved to renounce the world and become an ascetic, leaving his throne to his younger brother, Prince Harsha. But Prince Harsha persuaded him to remain on the throne.

He did not remain on the throne long. A servant of Rajyasri, bought word that her husband, Graha Varman, had been killed by Deva Gupta, the “wicked lord of Malwa”, and that the Rajyasri “has been confined like a brigand’s wife with a pair of iron fetters kissing her feet and cast into prison. “

As if that were not enough, the servant reported that Deva Gupta was planning to attack Thanesar. Rajya immediately mounted a campaign against Malwa, was victorious in short order but afterwards was assassinated by Sasanka, the king of Gauda. The situation that confronted the 16-year-old Harsha was that both Kanauj and Thanesar had been deprived of their kings. At this point in his life Harsha had been contemplating entering a Buddhist monastery, but when the ministers of Kanauj asked him to assume the throne of Kanauj, he was reluctant to accept it.

This point has been disputed by historians. According to Hsuan Tsang, however, he went to consult a statue of Buddha. When he approached it, the statue came to life and asked him what he wanted. He said he was troubled over the deaths of his father and his brother and that he was hesitant to accept the “royal dignity” that was being offered him. Buddha informed him that he had been a hermit in his previous life and that because of meritorious conduct, he had been born a prince in this life. Therefore, he should accept the kingship and “if you give your mind to compassionate the condition of the distressed and cherish them, then before long you shall rule over the five Indies. “

Harsha Vardhana, king of Thanesar and Kanauj, on accepting the “royal dignity”, was first confronted with two tasks: to rescue his sister and to punish his brother’s murderer.

Rajyasri had managed to escape from her captivity and hide out in the Vindhya Forest. When Harsha found her, it was not a moment too soon. In despair, she was about to throw herself on a funeral pyre. Harsha saved her in the nick of time.

During the next six years (606-612) Harsha waged war against his enemies and established an empire that extended more or less from Gujarat to Assam. Gauda was not subdued until 619.

There is considerable difference of opinion among historians as to the exact dimensions of Harsha’s kingdom. It was not a tightly knit empire. Conquered kings remained on their thrones but were required to pay tribute and homage to Harsha. The area directly under his control consisted of modern Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan and the Punjab.

Around 620 he attempted an invasion of the Deccan, and after his death in about 647, his kingdom disintegrated.

He was a patron of the arts and religion, both Buddhist and Hindu, and he gave a gift of a temple, about 35 metres in height made of brass or bronze, to the famous university at Nalanda.

According to R. C. Majumdar, Harsha “was undoubtedly one of the greatest rulers of ancient India. “Bana, his biographer, paid the greatest tribute:

“Through him the earth does, indeed, possess a true king! Wonderful is his royalty, surpassing the gods!”

Suggested Further Reading

  • Bana.
    Harsa-carita/ tr. by E. B. Cowell and F. W. Thomas. — London : Royal Asiatic Society, 1929.
    xiv, 284 p. ; 22 cm. — (Oriental Translation Fund new series)
  • Hsuan Tsang.
    Si-yu-ki. Buddhist records of the ancient world. — New York : Paragon, 1968.
    2 v. in 1 ; 23 cm.
  • Mukherjee, Radha Kumud.
    Harsha. — London : Oxford University Press, 1926.
    203 p. : ill. , facsims. , fold. map ; 19 cm.

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CHANDRA GUPTA II, VIKRAMADITYA

CHANDRA GUPTA II, VIKRAMADITYA

Chandra Gupta II succeeded to the throne of his father, Samudra Gupta, in about 380 A. D. Whether this was in the natural progression of things, or, as some scholars believe, that it occurred in a more dramatic fashion, is a matter of conjecture.

The story goes that the prince who inherited the throne was a weak prince named Rama Gupta. He agreed to surrender his wife, Dhruvadevi, to a Saka tyrant. His younger brother, Chandra Gupta, saved the family honour by slaying the tyrant, after which he murdered his brother and married his brother’s grieving widow.

Once on the throne, he continued his father’s aggressive policies by conquering the Saka rulers of Ujjain, but he also strengthened his empire by matrimonial alliances. He married his daughter Prabhuvati to the Vataka king, Rudrasena II. When the king died at an early age, she served as regent for the heirs to his throne, thereby increasing Gupta power in that part of the country. He also consolidated his influence with the Naga rulers by accepting the hand of princess Kuberanaga.

Chandra took the title Vikramaditya, meaning “Sun of Valour”, and surrounded himself in his court with the Navaratna (nine gems). These were the great writers who produced lasting works of Sanskrit literature that sparkled in the Golden Age of India. Chief of these was Kalidasa, “India’s Shakespeare”.

One of the celebrated events of the reigned of Chandra II was the arrival of Fa-Hsien, a pilgrim from China. In his journal he spoke highly of conditions in the Ganges Valley:

“The people are numerous and happy . . . . The king governs without decapitation or other corporal punishment; criminals are simply fined, lightly or heavily according to the circumstances. Even in repeated attempts at wicked rebellion, they only have their right hands cut off. “

On the death of Chandra in 413, Kumara Gupta I succeeded to the throne, followed in 455 by Skanda Gupta who repelled the Huns and took the Vikramaditya title. After his death in 467, the Gupta Empire went into decline, the last of the line being Vainya Gupta who reigned around 510.

Suggested Further Reading

  • Banerjee, Rakhal Das, 1885-1930.
    The age of the imperial Guptas. — New Delhi : Ramanand Vidya Bhawan, 1981.
    250 p. , [16] p. of plates : ill. ; 22 cm.
  • Dandekar, R. N.
    The age of the Guptas and other essays. — Delhi : Ajanta, 1982.
    viii, 391 p. ; 23 cm. — (Select writings ; 4)
  • Ganguly, Dilip Kumar, 1939-
    The imperial Guptas and their times. — New Delhi : Abhinav, 1987.
    xii, 184 p. ; 23 cm.

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SAMUDRA GUPTA

SAMUDRA GUPTA

The Gupta Age began with the founding of the Gupta dynasty by Chandra Gupta I. He was not the first of the family to rule, but the first to assume the title Maharajadhiraja (Supreme King of Great Kings) and make it stick. This was around in 320 A. D. when he formed a matrimonial alliance with a Lichchavi princess, Kumara Devi. The Lichchavis at that time ruled parts of Bihar and possibly portions of Nepal as well.

Chandra was the son of Ghatot Kacha and the grandson of Sri Gupta. He conquered most of the Gangetic Plain from Prayoga (Allahabad) to northern Bengal.

Toward the end of his reign, circa 335, he held a assembly of councillors during which he successor, Samudra, was nominated.

Samudra, the greatest of the Gupta rulers, was known outside his kingdom as indicated by the Tantrikamandaka, a Javanese manuscript, and by the action of Sri Meghavarna of Ceylon in sending an ambassador to him to obtain permission to build a monastery for Ceylonese pilgrims at Bodh Gaya.

However, most of the information about him comes from an inscription engraved on the Asokan pillar at Allahabad. It is a eulogy composed by Harisena, and there is also an epigraph which was found in central India. Numerous coins issued during the reign of Samudra tell of his conquests.

Samudra conquered many kingdoms during his reign, the first two being Ahichchhatra in Rohilkhand and and Padmavati in central India ruled by Achutya and Nagasena respectively. Other kings in north and central India defeated by Samudra were Rudradeva, Matila, Nagadatta, Chandravarman, Ganapatinaga, Nandin and Balavarman.

Samudra also invaded the Deccan, defeating Mahendra of Kosala in the Upper Mahanadi Valley, Vraghra Raja (the Tiger King of the wilderness of Mahakantara), Mantaraja of Kurala, Mahendragiri of Pishtapura in the Godavari district, Svamidatta of Kottura in the north of the Tamil country, Damana of Erindapapa, Nilaraja of Avamukta, Hastivarman (the Salankayana king of Vengi which is located between the Godavari and Krishna Rivers), Ugrasenna of Pulakka thought to be in the Nellore district, Kubera of Devarashtra in the Vizagapatam district, Dhanan~jaya of Kusthalapur around North Arcot and Vishnugopa of the Palava kingdom of Kanchipuram in the Chingleput district.

He restored the Deccan kings to their thrones and extracted tribute from them, but in the north he totally uprooted many kings and ruled their lands directly.

It is not only his military conquests for which Samudra Gupta is famous. He was a patron of the arts and a scholar, poet and musician in his own right. One of his coins shows him playing musical instrument, a harp or lyre.

At his death in about 380, Samudra Gupta was succeeded by his son Chandra Gupta II, called Vikramaditya.

Suggested Further Reading

  • A list of books on Samudra and all the Guptas will be found following the sketch of Chandra Gupta II.

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KANISHKA

KANISHKA

The life of Kanishka, one of the great kings of ancient India, is documented by Chinese sources, inscriptions and coins.

The date of Kanishka was the subject of a two-day seminar in 1913 which fixed it at 58 A. D. The genesis of a debate among historians may never cease. The traditional date of Kanishka, 78 A. D. , is the beginning of the Saka era. Britannica has him flourishing circa 120 A. D. Other scholars have his reign starting as late as 140 A. D. Whatever the date of Kanishka, it is agreed that he ruled 23 years and that his realm included Kashmir and Afghanistan. He was a Kushan (Kuie-Shuang), belonging to one of the five tribes into which the Yue-Chi (Indo- Scythians) were divided after their occupation of Bactria.

Kanishka is thought to have been the successor of Kadphises II, the Kushan ruler who conquered parts of the Indian interior, set up a governor to rule in his name and then became a convert to Saivism. In his time Kanishka increased his domain so that ultimately it extended from Bukhara on the west to Pataliputra on the east and the Pamirs in the north to central India in the south. His capital was at Purushapura (Peshawar).

He was a patron of the arts, as were many of the great kings of ancient India, but his fame rests chiefly on his patronage of Buddhism. He expended large sums toward the construction of Buddhist monuments and convened the fourth Buddhist council at Jullundur under the leadership of his teacher, Vasumitra. The beginning of Mahayana Buddhist is thought to date from this council. The council was called because Kanishka was confused by the many different views expressed by monks who visited him daily. In the Chinese historical records is this account:

“In the 400th year after the Nirvana of Tathagata, Kanishka, king of Gandhara, at the proper time having fulfilled his destiny, his royal influence reached far, so that distant peoples adhered to him. In his spare moments amidst the affairs of government he always studied the Buddhist sutras, and daily invited one monk to enter the palace and to expound the doctrine. But because different explanations of the doctrine were held by the various sects, the king was filled with doubt, and he had no way to remove his uncertainty . . . .

“The king the issued an edict to assemble saintly and wise men from far and near. Thereupon people from the four quarters came together like the spoke at the hub . . . “The proceedings of the council were engraved on copper plates.

Kanishka was tolerant of all religions because his coins honoured Brahmanic, Zoroastrian and Greek gods — and the Buddha.

Suggested Further Reading

  • Narain, A. K.
    From Alexander to Kanishka. — Varanasi : Banaras Hindu University, 1967.
    vi, 117 p. , plates ; 26 cm. — (Department of Ancient Indian Culture & Archaeology. Monographs ; No. 1)

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