The Constitution of India was written in 1949 and was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly. It came into effect on 26 January 1950, which is celebrated as Republic Day in India.
The writing of the Constitution of India began in earnest in December 1946, when a Constituent Assembly was elected to draft the Constitution of India. The Constituent Assembly was composed of elected representatives from each of the provinces and states of British India. The members of the Constituent Assembly were elected by the provincial legislatures and therefore, represented the different classes and communities of British India.
The Constituent Assembly held 11 sessions over 2 years, 11 months and 18 days, before the Constitution of India was adopted. During the period of its deliberations, the Assembly held many meetings and discussions and finally adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949.
The Constitution of India was prepared by the Constituent Assembly based on the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946, the Government of India Act 1935, the Indian Independence Act 1947, the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 and the Government of India Act of 1919. It was also influenced by the Government of India Act 1935 and the Indian Independence Act 1947.
The Constitution of India was divided into 22 parts and 395 articles, containing the fundamental laws and principles of the Indian state. It also contained 12 schedules, which listed various matters such as the Union and State Lists, the All India Services and the Fundamental Rights. The Constitution also contained a preamble, which declared the aims and objectives of the Indian state.
The main features of the Constitution of India include the Fundamental Rights, the Directive Principles of State Policy, the Judiciary, the Union and State Governments, the Electoral System and the Constitution Amendment process. It also grants citizens certain fundamental rights, such as the right to equality, freedom of speech, religion and culture, the right to property and the right to freedom from exploitation.
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world and it contains the provisions for a federal system of government, with the union at the center and the states as its constituent units. It also provides for a parliamentary system of government, with a President as the head of state and a Prime Minister as the head of government.
The Constitution of India is one of the most important documents in India, as it symbolizes the nation’s commitment to democracy and justice. It is the foundation of the rule of law, the protection of individual rights and the development of a strong and vibrant democracy. The Constitution of India has been amended over 100 times since its enactment in 1950, to keep up with changing social, economic and political needs.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of the land, and all other laws must conform to it. It is an enduring document that continues to shape the destiny of India and its citizens.