What is the state of matter at Earth’s core under extreme pressures?

At the Earth’s core, under extreme pressures and temperatures, the state of matter is believed to be in a form called “solid.” The Earth’s core consists of two distinct regions: the outer core and the inner core.

The outer core, which surrounds the solid inner core, is primarily composed of liquid iron and nickel. It experiences high temperatures ranging from approximately 4,000 to 5,000 degrees Celsius. The immense pressure at the core, estimated to be around 330 to 360 gigapascals, keeps the outer core in a liquid state despite the high temperatures.

In contrast, the inner core is believed to be a solid sphere composed primarily of iron and nickel, along with smaller amounts of other elements such as sulfur and oxygen. Despite the extreme temperatures, which can reach approximately 5,500 to 6,000 degrees Celsius, the inner core remains solid due to the even higher pressure exerted on it by the surrounding layers.

It is important to note that the exact composition and state of matter in Earth’s core are still the subject of scientific study and ongoing research. Direct observations and experiments are not possible due to the inaccessibility of the core, so scientists rely on indirect evidence and modeling techniques to understand its properties.

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